Tuberculos is a bacterial disease caused by mycobacteria – mycobacterium tuberculosis which affects the lungs. Tuberculosis is highly contagious spreads through the medium of air. It may also affect central nervous system, lymphatic system, genitourinary and gastrointestinal systems. It can show adverse effects on epidermal cells, bones and joints. Tuberculosis is contagious as it can spread through contaminated air which contains respiratory secretions of tuberculosis patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis is mostly found tuberculosis. It affects other organs by the flow of blood or lymph fluid across the body. It affects the brain and causes severe damage for brain.
Types of TB:
- Pulmonary TB.
- Extra pulmonary or disseminated or miliary TB.
- Lymph node TB
- Skeletal (bone and joint) TB.
- TB Meningitis.
- Gastrointestinal or abdominal TB.
- Laryngeal TB.
- Adrenal TB.
Incubation period of tuberculosis:
Tuberculosis bacteria divide very slowly. Tuberculosis infection takes several months to years to show symptoms. Within 2 to 12 weeks infected individual lungs will have primary infection which is asymptotic which means it inhibits the symptoms. Chest X-ray is not helpful to diagnose. with the help of tuberculin skin test and blood test we can get the confirmation of tuberculosis bacteria presence.
Usually immune system of our body fights against infective microbes and restricts the division of such pathogens rendering inactive microbes. The phase in which bacteria’s stay inactive in our body is called as latent tuberculosis. It is important to identify such pathogens in this stage so it can be cured efficiently. In this stage the infection is not contagious but there may be chances of growth of acute tuberculosis which threatens and might be contagious too. Progress of Latent tuberculosis phase to active tuberculosis is depending upon the immune system of infected individual. Patients are advised to go through testing for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI).
Symptoms of tuberculosis:
- Cough is the very common symptom of tuberculosis accompanied by phlegm, blood. Coughing makes patient to feel uneasy, high fever and sickness. Coughing lasts for more than 3-4 weeks.
- High sweating in the cold climates and chill night.
- Loss of appetite can be identified, weakens the immune system and bacteria becomes highly active.
- High loss of weight without any valid reasons.
- Chest pain makes breathing difficult due to the inflammation of membranes of lungs. This condition is pleurisy.
- Impaired movement occurs when joints and lymph glands are swollen.
- Enlargement of lymph glands in the neck region.
- Excessive blood clotting around the lungs which makes wheezing difficult.
- It can be carried from one generation to other if any individuals of family are infected.
Pulmonary tuberculosis is a type of tuberculosis in which primary infection starts from lungs then spreads to other organs of the body. The toughest task is to recognize the symptoms in primitive stages. Safe way to keep you away from TB is too distant yourself from individuals who are infected by tuberculosis or any contagious respiratory disorders.
Tuberculosis bacteria cause swelling of membranes of brain which results in brain damage if patient efficiently not treated intimae. TB meaning it is often seen in kids than elders. Unsanitary living condition and excess alcohol intake and impaired immune system lead to greater chances of contracting Tuberculosis Meningitis. Stiff neck, confusions, seizures, severe headache are the symptoms of this disease. Drugs used to cure TB meningitis are ethambutol, Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide. In severe cases where medicines like seromycin, Laniazid, Nydrazid are given. BCG vaccines must be injected to children to protect from TB Miningitis.
Treatment for tuberculosis:
- Drug named chemoprophylaxis is very effective to treat kids under the age of 4 years.
- Tuberculosis Skin test and blood tests are made to detect the disease.
- Tests like LTBI, FDA, and ELISA are performed for detection of pathogens.
- Drugs for elders are ethambutol, streptomycin, capreomycin, isoniazid, rifampin. These are very efficient medicines which can also cause adverse effects if not taken as prescribed by physician.
- Stay away from the infected individuals as TB is highly contagious.
- Treatment duration can be of 6 months up to a year depending on patient health status.
Diet for TB patients:
- Good to consume Rich iron and B-vitamin containing Green leaves spinach, kale.
- Breads, whole wheat pastas, cereals.
- Take high calorie protein shakes or nutritious drinks.
- Peppermint or ginger tea will be great.
- Small meals containing beans, legumes, low fat dairy products, soy, fish, cottage cheese, chicken.
- Diet should include rich fruits like kiwi, apple, strawberry, oranges and fresh vegetables.
- Intake of antioxidants like aged garlic, lemons, astragals, green tea, and rhodiola keeps immune system strong.
- Multivitamin supplements can be taken when unable to consume adequate vitamins from regular diet.
Tuberculosis is not hereditary but it is highly infectious chronical airborne disorder. Prevention is better than cure so keep you protected. Tuberculosis takes a very long time to cure and treatments are quite expensive. Whenever you visit highly TB infected cities get yourself TB tested. Globally billions of people are attacked by TB per annum. Adopt better healthy diets and avoid excess alcohol. Quit smoking for better healthy and happy life. Keep your immune system strong to fight against pathogens.